Ancient mtDNA from Unetice Culture remains


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R1a1a
PostPosted: Mon Apr 15, 2013 10:37 am
Interesting stuff...

To investigate whether a single, continuous population has existed in Central Europe since the Early Neolithic until today, a dataset of ancient mtDNA from Early Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age cultures from Central Europe was compiled (n=108). Population continuity from the introduction of agriculture in the Early Neolithic until today was found to be an unlikely model of demographic history, as indicated by the results from population genetic and coalescent analyses of the ancient mtDNA, which was compared to extant populations from the same region. Internal population changes in Europe between the Early Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age appear to have contributed substantially to the population structure of extant Central Europeans, as all the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age cultures examined (Bell Beakers, Corded Ware or Unetice) were found to be more likely ancestors of modern Central Europeans than either of the Early Neolithic cultures (LBK and Rössen) investigated. Haplogroup distributions suggest that Palaeolithic mtDNA haplogroups which were infrequent in the Early Neolithic, such as haplogroups H and U, became more frequent during the Late Neolithic. These findings alter the traditional view of which past settlement events in Europe have contributed to the current genetic structure of the continent and demonstrate that past events which are not associated with major climatic or economic changes in human history, such as internal migrations in Europe during the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age, can also substantially alter population structure.


Ancient DNA studies of human evolution

http://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/ ... 2440/73014
Last edited by Tomatoes on Sat May 25, 2013 11:20 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Tue Apr 16, 2013 6:34 am
Yes, very interesting. We need to see the full mtDNA sequences to say anything more specific about the origins, and hopefully those will be available soon.

My guess is that the Corded Ware and Unetice samples are mostly U5a1a1, U5a1b, U5a2a1 and U5a2b. These are the groups that account for a large fraction of present day U5 samples, and based on their star patterns they each appear to have begun to expand rapidly around 8000 to 6000 years ago. The other much more diverse, and much more rare subclades of U5a1 and U5a2 are found more often in western and northern Europe and do not seem to have undergone a population expansion in the Neolithic.

So, U5 expands from ice age refugia throughout Europe. U5a1a1, U5a1b, U5a2a1 and U5a2b subsequently expand into eastern Europe, the Steppe region and as far as central Asia. During the late Neolithic or Bronze age, they re-expand into Europe as part of Corded Ware and Unetice populations.

The much more diverse subclades of U5a and U5b that remain in western and northern Europe are largely replaced, first by early Neolithic farmers, and then more completely by late Neolithic/Bronze age Bell Beakers, Corded Ware and Unetice populations.

We need the full genomes of the ancient mtDNA samples to test this theory.

Posts: 640
Joined: Sun May 20, 2012 2:15 am

YDNA:
R1a1a
PostPosted: Tue Apr 16, 2013 8:06 am
GailT wrote:Yes, very interesting. We need to see the full mtDNA sequences to say anything more specific about the origins, and hopefully those will be available soon.

My guess is that the Corded Ware and Unetice samples are mostly U5a1a1, U5a1b, U5a2a1 and U5a2b. These are the groups that account for a large fraction of present day U5 samples, and based on their star patterns they each appear to have begun to expand rapidly around 8000 to 6000 years ago. The other much more diverse, and much more rare subclades of U5a1 and U5a2 are found more often in western and northern Europe and do not seem to have undergone a population expansion in the Neolithic.

So, U5 expands from ice age refugia throughout Europe. U5a1a1, U5a1b, U5a2a1 and U5a2b subsequently expand into eastern Europe, the Steppe region and as far as central Asia. During the late Neolithic or Bronze age, they re-expand into Europe as part of Corded Ware and Unetice populations.

The much more diverse subclades of U5a and U5b that remain in western and northern Europe are largely replaced, first by early Neolithic farmers, and then more completely by late Neolithic/Bronze age Bell Beakers, Corded Ware and Unetice populations.

We need the full genomes of the ancient mtDNA samples to test this theory.


In other words, modern Europeans are largely the result of complex interactions between Copper Age groups from the peripheries of Europe, which for some reason (perhaps metal technology?) moved - or in a way, back migrated - en masse into the heartland of Europe and largely replaced the first farmers there, who in turn largely replaced the hunter-gatherers there much earlier.

That sounds very reasonable actually, and it's probably why no one has been able to figure out to date how the fig modern Europeans came to be. It seems the process was extremely complex, with a lot of mixing and some major migrations back and forth.

In any case, this study also strengthens the case for Bell Beaker Culture originally coming from Iberia.

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Joined: Wed Mar 14, 2012 4:40 pm
PostPosted: Tue Apr 16, 2013 1:45 pm
GailT wrote:Yes, very interesting. We need to see the full mtDNA sequences to say anything more specific about the origins, and hopefully those will be available soon.

My guess is that the Corded Ware and Unetice samples are mostly U5a1a1, U5a1b, U5a2a1 and U5a2b. These are the groups that account for a large fraction of present day U5 samples, and based on their star patterns they each appear to have begun to expand rapidly around 8000 to 6000 years ago. The other much more diverse, and much more rare subclades of U5a1 and U5a2 are found more often in western and northern Europe and do not seem to have undergone a population expansion in the Neolithic.

So, U5 expands from ice age refugia throughout Europe. U5a1a1, U5a1b, U5a2a1 and U5a2b subsequently expand into eastern Europe, the Steppe region and as far as central Asia. During the late Neolithic or Bronze age, they re-expand into Europe as part of Corded Ware and Unetice populations.

The much more diverse subclades of U5a and U5b that remain in western and northern Europe are largely replaced, first by early Neolithic farmers, and then more completely by late Neolithic/Bronze age Bell Beakers, Corded Ware and Unetice populations.

We need the full genomes of the ancient mtDNA samples to test this theory.


Gail in this scenario then would U5b2c be part of a West European fringe population of hunter-gatherers?

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Joined: Tue Mar 20, 2012 3:38 am
PostPosted: Tue Apr 16, 2013 2:06 pm
Tomatoes wrote:In other words, modern Europeans are largely the result of complex interactions between Copper Age groups from the peripheries of Europe, which for some reason (perhaps metal technology?) moved - or in a way, back migrated - en masse into the heartland of Europe and largely replaced the first farmers there, who in turn largely replaced the hunter-gatherers there much earlier.

That sounds very reasonable actually, and it's probably why no one has been able to figure out to date how the fig modern Europeans came to be. It seems the process was extremely complex, with a lot of mixing and some major migrations back and forth.

In any case, this study also strengthens the case for Bell Beaker Culture originally coming from Iberia.


Yes, that seems very likely, but if we get full mtDNA genome from the ancient samples, it would help to confirm (or refute) this.

Jman - yes, U5b2c with an age estimate of about 13000 years, and only 31 samples mostly found in the UK and Ireland, and ancient hunter gather samples from La Brana in northern Spain, fits this theory as one of the U5 subclades that remained the fringe of Europe and was largely replace. Although we have other subclades that are still more rare.

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Joined: Wed Mar 14, 2012 4:40 pm
PostPosted: Tue Apr 16, 2013 2:23 pm
GailT wrote:
Tomatoes wrote:In other words, modern Europeans are largely the result of complex interactions between Copper Age groups from the peripheries of Europe, which for some reason (perhaps metal technology?) moved - or in a way, back migrated - en masse into the heartland of Europe and largely replaced the first farmers there, who in turn largely replaced the hunter-gatherers there much earlier.

That sounds very reasonable actually, and it's probably why no one has been able to figure out to date how the fig modern Europeans came to be. It seems the process was extremely complex, with a lot of mixing and some major migrations back and forth.

In any case, this study also strengthens the case for Bell Beaker Culture originally coming from Iberia.


Yes, that seems very likely, but if we get full mtDNA genome from the ancient samples, it would help to confirm (or refute) this.

Jman - yes, U5b2c with an age estimate of about 13000 years, and only 31 samples mostly found in the UK and Ireland, and ancient hunter gather samples from La Brana in northern Spain, fits this theory as one of the U5 subclades that remained the fringe of Europe and was largely replace. Although we have other subclades that are still more rare.


Okay so do you think then that U5b2c would have been among one of the last subclades of U5 in Europe to be fully absorbed into Neolithic farming cultures? That is they were foragers who held onto the foraging lifestyle the longest in the far West of Europe?

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PostPosted: Wed Apr 17, 2013 2:39 am
J Man wrote:Okay so do you think then that U5b2c would have been among one of the last subclades of U5 in Europe to be fully absorbed into Neolithic farming cultures? That is they were foragers who held onto the foraging lifestyle the longest in the far West of Europe?


Yes, I think that is a strong possibility.

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Joined: Wed Mar 14, 2012 4:40 pm
PostPosted: Wed Apr 17, 2013 1:31 pm
GailT wrote:
J Man wrote:Okay so do you think then that U5b2c would have been among one of the last subclades of U5 in Europe to be fully absorbed into Neolithic farming cultures? That is they were foragers who held onto the foraging lifestyle the longest in the far West of Europe?


Yes, I think that is a strong possibility.


Fascinating! Thanks Gail!

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Joined: Tue Mar 20, 2012 3:38 am
PostPosted: Thu Apr 18, 2013 4:18 am
I looked at the results reported for the U5 samples in the Corded Ware and Unetice cultures, and I can't say much about them given that only part of the HVR1 results are available. The ones that are reported as U5a1a can only be reliable identified as U5a1.

There is one sample (reported as U5a1a) that might be identified more specifically as "U5a1f Group 2"

QUEVIII 7 Unetice C16192T C16222T C16256T C16270T A16399G

We have three modern samples in this group, one person from Ukraine and two from Russia, including GU296603 from the 2010 Malyarchuk et al paper on U5. The age estimate of U5a1f Group 2 is about 6000 ybp, so it is older than the Unetice culture and could have been present there.

Posts: 640
Joined: Sun May 20, 2012 2:15 am

YDNA:
R1a1a
PostPosted: Thu Apr 18, 2013 5:36 am
GailT wrote:I looked at the results reported for the U5 samples in the Corded Ware and Unetice cultures, and I can't say much about them given that only part of the HVR1 results are available. The ones that are reported as U5a1a can only be reliable identified as U5a1.

There is one sample (reported as U5a1a) that might be identified more specifically as "U5a1f Group 2"

QUEVIII 7 Unetice C16192T C16222T C16256T C16270T A16399G

We have three modern samples in this group, one person from Ukraine and two from Russia, including GU296603 from the 2010 Malyarchuk et al paper on U5. The age estimate of U5a1f Group 2 is about 6000 ybp, so it is older than the Unetice culture and could have been present there.


Yes, there's something very easterly about the Unetice sample overall. It's closest to the Belorussian sample (BLR) but much more eastern.

It's difficult to say what that means though. There could have been migrations from Belarus both to the west and east during the Bronze Age, and then a shift in the Belorussian genetic structure to more western due to genetic influence from Central Europe, including indirect gene flow from Bell Beaker populations. Or perhaps the Unetice groups migrated straight from Russia or Ukraine to Germany? If so, then it's strange there's a lack of mtDNA C and other Siberian markers in the Unetice and Corded Ware samples, because they're found in most prehistoric Ukrainian samples from the steppe.
Last edited by Tomatoes on Sat May 25, 2013 11:21 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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