Late Neolithic pastoralist's life conditions Wroclaw-Jagodno

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 11:50 am
Assessment of late Neolithic pastoralist's life conditions from the Wroclaw-Jagodno site (SW Poland) on the basis of physiological stress markers

Bohdan Gworys, Joanna Rosińczuk-Tonderys, Aleksander Chrószcz, Maciej
Janeczek, Andrzej Dwojak, Justyna Bazan, Mirosław Furmanek, Tadeusz Dobosz,
Małgorzata Bonar, Anna Jonkisz, Ireneusz Całkosiński
PII: S0305-4403(13)00045-9
DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2013.02.002
Reference: YJASC 3586
Journal of Archaeological Science
Received Date: 15 April 2011
Revised Date: 24 January 2013
Accepted Date: 2 February 2013

Abstract
So-called physiological stressmarkers are extremely valuable in assessing life conditions of
old human populations. They constitute effects of adverse environmental conditions, which
leave traces on skeleton. Those traces allow for partial assessment of life conditions not only
in environmental and social but also cultural aspects for prehistoric populations. The aim of
this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism
at the final stage of the Neolithic period – in the Corded Ware culture. Two skeletons
discovered in a tumulus on the outskirts of Wroclaw in the Jagodno district have been
subjected to assessment. Their age at the moment of death has been determined in both cases
on the basis of multi-feature analysis of changes occurring in formation of particular
morphologic features of skeleton and teeth. Attention has been paid to the obliteration degree
of skull sutures and the surface state of chewing tooth crowns. A comprehensive DNA
analysis has been conducted determining sex of the remains.(1,2)

Two teeth coming from fossil human skeletons were examined in the Molecular Technology
Institute of Forensic Medicine Department, Wroclaw Medical University. It was stated that
both teeth came from two men on the basis of the gene of amelogenin variants study.
Determining polymorphisms of SNP type from chromosome Y resulted in categorizing
skeleton from grave no. 1 with very high probability into haplogroup G, whereas skeleton
from grave no. 2 with very high probability into one of three haplogroups J, I or E*. Detailed
results of determinations are included in the attached table 2. On the basis of the above
mentioned expertise one can state that the skeletons are male individuals with no relationship
between each other (7,8)

An analysis of polymorphism of single nucleotide (SNP) of chromosome Y from genetic
material derived from both burials has brought in different results than in the case of so far
analyzed aDNA materials of burials of the Corded Ware culture or partly contemporary
Beaker culture which revealed the presence of haplogroups R1a1 and R1b among them (Haak
et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2012). In case of the dead from Wrocław-Jagodno genetic diversity of
both individuals was observed. One of them does not have clearly determined haplogroup. We
should reject his affiliation to paragroup E* characteristic mainly for Africa and identified
among population of Bantu (Karafet et al., 2008). On the other hand, haplogroup J was
probably formed about 30000 years ago in Arabian Peninsula and it is often identified as a
indicator of the Neolithic demic diffusion associated with spreading agriculture (Semino et
al., 2004, 1996). Its contemporary distribution covers mainly the area of Middle East and the
Mediterranean Sea basin; it sporadically occurs in Central Europe. Latest analyses show that
its spreading might be a marker of later migrations (Giacomo et al., 2004). Hence the most
probable is acceptance of haplogroup I as a proper one for the examined individual. It is
considered that it was developed between 15000 and 30000 years ago (Karafet et al., 2008)
and its spreading is associated with the expansion of the Paleolithic Gravettian culture
(Semino, 2000) or population from the beginning of Holocene (Rootsi et al., 2004). Thus we
should think that this individual is most probably descendant of native hunting and gathering
community. Haplogroup G, identified in the second individual, belongs to widespread
multiethnic groups of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. This haplogroup is largely identified
among analyzed aDNA materials from Europe including the early Neolithic in Spain and
Germany and the late Neolithic in France. It is a serious factor supporting a conception of
spreading of Neolithic from the area of Middle East (Haak et al., 2010; Lacan et al., 2011;
Rootsi et al., 2012). It may indicate very complicated development processes of communities
of the Corded Ware culture in which diverse populations participated – autochtonous deriving
from hunting and gathering ancestors as well as Neolithic populations, genetically deriving
from the Middle East areas but already living there since the beginning of Neolithic.(13-14)



.
Y DNA - Barcelos - Minho - Portugal. Colonial Brazil
MtDNA - Ilha Terceira, Azores, Portugal
Brazilian Portuguese Founding People
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/m365/
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Brasil/
http://j1bm365.blogspot.com.br/

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 12:25 pm
Oh my! Thank you so much.

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R1a1a
PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 12:50 pm
We should reject his affiliation to paragroup E* characteristic mainly for Africa and identified among population of Bantu (Karafet et al., 2008). On the other hand, haplogroup J was probably formed about 30000 years ago in Arabian Peninsula and it is often identified as a indicator of the Neolithic demic diffusion associated with spreading agriculture (Semino et al., 2004, 1996). Its contemporary distribution covers mainly the area of Middle East and the Mediterranean Sea basin; it sporadically occurs in Central Europe. Latest analyses show that its spreading might be a marker of later migrations (Giacomo et al., 2004). Hence the most probable is acceptance of haplogroup I as a proper one for the examined individual. It is considered that it was developed between 15000 and 30000 years ago (Karafet et al., 2008) and its spreading is associated with the expansion of the Paleolithic Gravettian culture (Semino, 2000) or population from the beginning of Holocene (Rootsi et al., 2004). Thus we should think that this individual is most probably descendant of native hunting and gathering community.


That's a pretty laidback analysis there. There's actually no reason why that second guy can't be E*, considering the first guy is G, and both E and G have been found in early Neolithic European remains.

In any case, it's a surprising result, but after looking at various maps, my impression is that this site is on the edge of the Corded Ware culture horizon, and might even come from an area that was only under heavy Corded Ware influence. Indeed, the so called Baden Culture was located very close to there.

Also, what is the age of that site?

Posts: 640
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YDNA:
R1a1a
PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 1:31 pm
Here's some more info about that site. FYI, the Lubaczów site mentioned there is in far southeastern Poland.

The human skeletal remains came from two graves located within the Neolithic barrow discovered in Jagodno, near Wrocław. It was dated to 2800 BC in Radiocarbon Laboratory in Poznan. The human skeletal burials were located 120 m above the sea level and at 0,8 m and 1,4 m depth below the surface. Some Neolithic objects were found in above-mentioned graves. The archaeological description of barrow no. 1 contains: feature 3b –grave 2 A – serpentine axe probably form Slea massif (Janska Góra?), maximal dimensions: 14 cm x 4,2 cm x 4,1 cm; opening diameter 1,9 (1,8) cm; head of axe diameter 3,1 cm. The axe is boat – shaped with the maximal width in opening region. The toe and heel surface is little flattened, the toe is minutely bow – shaped and the heel minimally sloping. The head of axe is flattened, truncated cone – shaped with convex round poll (butt). The bit (blade) is asymmetric in the side view, but only slightly sloping. The opening (eye) is drilled exactly transversely to long axis of the tool. Above mentioned features of the axe seem to indicate the younger phase of Corded Ware Culture period. These observations can lead us to incorrect conclusions; therefore it can not be treated as a chronological proof. We suspect, the object belongs to intermediate evolution form, between the axes of B type, according to Struve (Struve 1955) and the earliest examples of Sleza type axes (Geschwendt 1931). It may be a prototype of the last one. It means, the axe chronology and the whole burial process took place in the Middle European horizon of Corded Ware Culture period. The barrow, or barrows, in Jagodno look similar to the Neolithic monuments from Corded Ware Culture period in Lubaczów (Machnik 1979), dated back to the same time span. Interestingly, the barrow graves in Lubaczów contained also such axes, commonly described as typologically younger.


http://www.geoinfo.amu.edu.pl/sas/09/sk ... odniej.pdf

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 1:40 pm
The calibrated radiocarbon date for the first burial is 1st half of 3rd millennium BC (2830-2489 BC).

I don't find the Y-DNA results surprising. The Corded Ware Culture is complex. Archaeologically it seems to be the result of people moving up the rivers Prut, Dnieper and Dniester from the steppe and blending with previous peoples of the North European Plain. The TRB had already adopted much of the technology of the Secondary Products Revolution and appeared to be thriving on it c. 3400 BC. Then there are signs of a population decrease from about 3350 BC. New types of burial custom appear in Funnel Beaker (TRB) sites after about 3000 BC. The dead are mainly buried collectively, but individual burials with weapons appear. These typical warrior burials suggest conflict appearing in this society. That could be the result of internal pressure over scarce resources, given known climate change. Then the population rose again after about 2900 BC, which probably indicates the arrival of the people later identified by their characteristic Corded Ware pottery, with its own warrior burials.

This paper was looking for signs of stress from scarce resources and found them.

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 2:08 pm
The two skeletons studied were both of teenage males. That in grave one died of a crushed skull age 16-18. So they are unlikely to have left descendants. They give us some clues though to the complex formation of the Corded Ware Culture.

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PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 4:06 pm
Tomatoes wrote:There's actually no reason why that second guy can't be E*, considering the first guy is G, and both E and G have been found in early Neolithic European remains.


I agree with the authors that E* seems highly unlikely. They ruled out E1b1, E1a and E2 by SNP (plus several SNPs downstream of E1b1, presumably to be on the safe side). Karafet estimated E* to be 50,000-55,000 years old. By the time that E reached Europe we would expect it to have collected more mutations. The type found in Epicardial remains was E1b1b1a1b.

The data is now in my online table, with no. 2 skeleton as J or I.

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YDNA:
R1a-L657(Y2392)
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U2b2
PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 4:25 pm
Tomatoes wrote:
That's a pretty laidback analysis there. There's actually no reason why that second guy can't be E*, considering the first guy is G, and both E and G have been found in early Neolithic European remains.

In any case, it's a surprising result, but after looking at various maps, my impression is that this site is on the edge of the Corded Ware culture horizon, and might even come from an area that was only under heavy Corded Ware influence. Indeed, the so called Baden Culture was located very close to there.

Also, what is the age of that site?


Exactly- there is no reason to doubt the possibility of E*or I.

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YDNA:
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 6:17 pm
JeanM wrote:
Tomatoes wrote:There's actually no reason why that second guy can't be E*, considering the first guy is G, and both E and G have been found in early Neolithic European remains.


I agree with the authors that E* seems highly unlikely. They ruled out E1b1, E1a and E2 by SNP (plus several SNPs downstream of E1b1, presumably to be on the safe side). Karafet estimated E* to be 50,000-55,000 years old. By the time that E reached Europe we would expect it to have collected more mutations. The type found in Epicardial remains was E1b1b1a1b.

The data is now in my online table, with no. 2 skeleton as J or I.


Jean,

Which were the SNPs tested? (E-M78, E-M81, E-M33, E-V13, E-M215, E-V100, M89, M168, YAP?) Why were they not able to eliminate E?

Thanks.

Posts: 472
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YDNA:
R1a-L657(Y2392)
MtDNA:
U2b2
PostPosted: Tue Feb 26, 2013 6:36 pm
Current distribution in Wroclaw (black bars)
Image
http://volgagermanbrit.us/documents/Y_S ... ations.pdf
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