Origins and Evolution of the Etruscans’ mtDNA

Any discussions regarding mt-DNA markers, results or questions.
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Posts: 225
Joined: Fri Mar 16, 2012 3:51 pm

YDNA:
R1b-U152+L2+
MtDNA:
H4a1
PostPosted: Fri Feb 08, 2013 10:19 pm
Abstract

The Etruscan culture is documented in Etruria, Central Italy, from the 8th to the 1st century BC. For more than 2,000 years there has been disagreement on the Etruscans’ biological origins, whether local or in Anatolia. Genetic affinities with both Tuscan and Anatolian populations have been reported, but so far all attempts have failed to fit the Etruscans’ and modern populations in the same genealogy. We extracted and typed the hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA of 14 individuals buried in two Etruscan necropoleis, analyzing them along with other Etruscan and Medieval samples, and 4,910 contemporary individuals from the Mediterranean basin. Comparing ancient (30 Etruscans, 27 Medieval individuals) and modern DNA sequences (370 Tuscans), with the results of millions of computer simulations, we show that the Etruscans can be considered ancestral, with a high degree of confidence, to the current inhabitants of Casentino and Volterra, but not to the general contemporary population of the former Etruscan homeland. By further considering two Anatolian samples (35 and 123 individuals) we could estimate that the genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan culture developed locally, and not as an immediate consequence of immigration from the Eastern Mediterranean shores.

Full paper can be read here:

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055519
Paternal: R1b-U152+ L2+ (Z49- Z367-), Pietro Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
Maternal: Haplogroup H4a1, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Asturias, Spain
Mother's Paternal: J1c3d-YSC234/Z2329+ (YSC80-), Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
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Posts: 542
Joined: Mon Oct 22, 2012 8:19 am
Location: Family Line Veneto ( italy ) since ~1600
YDNA:
T1a2-Z19945
MtDNA:
H95a
PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2013 1:07 am
Richard Rocca wrote:Abstract

The Etruscan culture is documented in Etruria, Central Italy, from the 8th to the 1st century BC. For more than 2,000 years there has been disagreement on the Etruscans’ biological origins, whether local or in Anatolia. Genetic affinities with both Tuscan and Anatolian populations have been reported, but so far all attempts have failed to fit the Etruscans’ and modern populations in the same genealogy. We extracted and typed the hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA of 14 individuals buried in two Etruscan necropoleis, analyzing them along with other Etruscan and Medieval samples, and 4,910 contemporary individuals from the Mediterranean basin. Comparing ancient (30 Etruscans, 27 Medieval individuals) and modern DNA sequences (370 Tuscans), with the results of millions of computer simulations, we show that the Etruscans can be considered ancestral, with a high degree of confidence, to the current inhabitants of Casentino and Volterra, but not to the general contemporary population of the former Etruscan homeland. By further considering two Anatolian samples (35 and 123 individuals) we could estimate that the genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan culture developed locally, and not as an immediate consequence of immigration from the Eastern Mediterranean shores.

Full paper can be read here:

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0055519


thanks, I read it.

GailT makes very interesting comments.

In regards to Raetia being etruscans...I cannot understand why this is still around, only 1( ONE ) etruscan alphabet was found in raeitan lands ..in Belluno. The raetian population far out numbered the etruscans with 45 tribes, Not including vindelici. The Raetia HG is G2a based in terek areas of north caucasus and not the same as the 'greek" G2a which etruscans had. Etruscans are said to have originated in south anatolia ( lydia area ).
The Raetia traded with etruscan in Verona...the venetics entered this into a 3 way trade hub called Cologna Veneta .......I guess maybe etruscan was used as a language in this trade market.

The gaulish-celtic invasion of etruscan lombardy settled the cennomani tribe from marseilles to replace the etruscans in this "market".

But, this is about mtDna and GailT ( as I mentioned ) has noted some interesting observations
Fathers mtdna - T2b17 ...back to 1860 Bucciol line
Grandfathers mtdna - T1a1e ...back to 1820 Mestriner line
Sons Mtdna - K1a4 ....back to 1840 Tesser line
Maternal grandfather ydna - Ild-P109

Posts: 116
Joined: Tue Mar 20, 2012 3:38 am
PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2013 3:27 am
Reposting my comment here - There is no mention of haplogroups in the paper, and it appears they did not attempt to assign the ancient DNA samples to haplogroups, so I looked at the 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes listed in Table S1.

Seven of them appear to be U5, although they only identified the U5 defining mutation 16270 in two of the seven, and they seem to have missed several other mutations that should be present. For example, samples Hap4 and Hap5 are both U5a2a (based on the combination of 16114a and 16294). U5a2a should also have mutations at 16256, 16270 and 16526, but they miss all 3 of these in Hap4, while they only found 16256 in Hap5. So based on the U5 samples, they appear to have a high error rate of missed markers in their results.

Eight of the samples appear to be J, based on the mutation at 16126. Two of the samples might be H1b based on the mutation at 16356. I can't identify haplogroups for any of the remaining 13 samples. Six of the samples are CRS, but given that they missed 16270 in most of the apparent U5 samples, it is really impossible to guess what haplogroup the CRS samples might be.

Figure 3, the median joining network, has the haplotypes scrambled in a way that has no connection to their actual relationship in the phylogeographic tree. So that makes me wonder if the rest of their analysis is meaningful.

Obviously they need to do additional sequencing on 13 of the 30 samples to identify their haplogroup. But the results we have so far seem to show the ancient Etruscans samples dominated by haplogroups J and U5.

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