New paper by Costa et al. on Ashkenazi mtDNA, mainly U8-K

Posts: 61
Joined: Wed Mar 14, 2012 4:29 pm
PostPosted: Wed Oct 09, 2013 1:41 pm
Hi all,

A major new paper was released yesterday by Costa et al. "A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages." See: ... s3543.html This paper deals mainly with haplogroups K and N1b2 and with K's "grandmother" U8, but there are discussions of other haplogroups and subclades that have minor Ashkenazi Jewish maternal founders. Included is a complete new U8-K tree, plus some smaller trees for the other subclades. Further comment on this will follow in time.

Ian Logan's interpretation of the 74 sequences on GenBank with this paper may be found here: ... 1380558272 A link to the second half of the sequences is at the bottom. Not all of the sequences are from Ashkenazi individuals; perhaps none are. The paper has a file with the origins of each sequence.

Bill Hurst
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Posts: 41
Joined: Wed Mar 14, 2012 10:49 pm
Location: Cologne, Germany
PostPosted: Thu Oct 10, 2013 4:46 pm
This interpretation is quite congruent with new estimations of historians. There is a very good short essay of Werner Eck: ... nsuche.pdf
( only in German ), examining the earliest document about the existence of a Jewish community in North Europe, dating from the year 321 and signed by Konstantin. It answered a query of the Cologne magistry, who wanted to order also rich Jewish citizens for a job in the Cologne magistry, which had to be privately paid. Before that Jewish people in the Roman empire had been free from this duty because of their privilege to not be forced to be part of any strange sacrifice, usual in all political meetings. After Konstantins conversion this reason no longer was valid, so both Jews and Christians could now become responsible politicians.
Eck argues, that there must have been a considerable well established Jewish community not only in Cologne, but all the other military towns along the Rhine.
The main question behind all the new genetic discussion for me is one of peace or war. In times of peace we would expect a scenario like that, Behar seems to prefer. Jewish traders with their families head for the north to found new communities, leaving both male and female haplogroups originated in the Near East. I doubt, that a few traders could be able to establish such big and powerful communities as necessary to lead to the above document.
Times of war give another scenario. In the year 69 Vespasian left Jerusalem with four legions to fight against Vitellius in Rome, leaving a military vacuum, thus encouraging the rebellion of the next year including the destruction of Jerusalem. The same happened in Cologne, where Vitellius took away many soldiers to fight against Otho in South France early in 69.
So at the end of the year 70 we see again Vespasian coming to Cologne to beat down the Germanic rebellion with legions, full of warprisoners and probably thousands of young unmarried Jewish men, forced into the army.
Y (FXHD8) mt (D9M4P), MurtiX, DE1(DE22), DOD219, M111723 (M001628)

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